Tuesday, 31 January 2012


by Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA) on Tuesday, January 31, 2012 at 10:03am


   Asteroid 433 Eros seperti yang dilihat oleh kapal angkasa NEAR NASA pada 29 Februari 2000. (NASA/JPL/JHUAPL)

Pada 31 Januari 2012, asteroid 433 Eros akan berada pada kedudukan paling hampir dengan Bumi sejak 37 tahun yang lalu, bergerak merentasi langit malam dalam buruj Leo, Sextans dan Hydra. Ketika ia berada paling dekat dengan Bumi iaitu kira-kira 26.7 juta kilometer.

Asteroid yang bersaiz 34 kilometer ini akan dapat dilihat walaupun menerusi teleskop kecil dengan kecerahannya sekitar magnitud 8 dan berkemungkinan mencecah sehingga magnitud 7.   Asteroid 433 Eros tidak pernah berada sedekat sekarang sejak tahun 1975, dan ia juga tidak akan berada sedekat ini lagi sehinggalah pada tahun 2056.

Asteroid Eros dijumpai pada 13 Ogos 1898, oleh ahli-ahli astronomi Carl Gustav Witt di Berlin dan Auguste Charlois di Nice.  Pengiraan terhadap orbit Eros menunjukkan ianya  berbentuk  bujur memanjang yang merentasi orbit Marikh.  Ini memberikan kita peluang yang baik untuk melakukan pencerapan kerana ianya boleh membantu kita melakukan pengiraan jarak dari Bumi ke Matahari dengan lebih tepat.

Mengkaji objek angkasa seperti asteroid Eros ini boleh memberikan kefahaman kepada kita tentang pembentukan sistem suria.  Ia juga membolehkan ahli astronomi lebih memahami komposisi asteroid  yang mana maklumat ini boleh digunakan untuk mengelak apa-apa kesan hentaman yang berpotensi berlaku terhadap Bumi di masa-masa akan datang.

Imej Asteroid 433 Eros dirakamkan pada 30 Januari 2012 menerusi teleskop berdiameter 20 inci di Observatori Negara Langkawi.

Walaupun Eros akan berada kepada kedudukan menghampiri Bumi pada 31 Januari2012, tetapi tidak akan ada bahaya perlanggaran. Ia masih kekal pada jarak kira-kira 26.7 juta kilometer atau 0.178 AU.  Jarak ini adalah lebih 80 kali lebih jauh berbanding jarak asteroid 2005 YU55, yang berada dalam lingkungan orbit bulan pada 8 November 2011 yang lalu.

Observatori Negara Langkawi
Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA)

Sunday, 29 January 2012

Solar Flares can create earthquakes, facts and history

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As I was writing the hub about whether or not we can predict earthquakes I found that there is a lot of very interesting information regarding Solar Flares. I then decided that Solar Flares need to have their own special hub so this is why I am writing this.
According to scientists at (NCAR) in Boulder, Colo. "The next solar activity cycle will be 30 to 50 percent stronger than the previous one, and up to a year late in arriving. ... One needs to go back over 8,000 years in order to find a time when the sun was, on average, as active as it is at present!" - They were speaking about the solar activity we are starting to experience at this time.
NASA admitted on their website "spacequakes can cause Northern lights and magnitude 5 or 6 earthquake". To find out more on Earthquakes please click here


When all three graphs below hit 9, is when the sun has become extremely violent and a world-wide power blackout may be emanate.
March 19th 2011, Prominence Eroption up close
Source: NASA

The different strength Solar Flares explained

Scientists classify solar flares according to their brightness in the x-ray wavelengths. There are three categories of solar flares -
C-class flares - These are small solar flares with few noticeable consequences here on Earth.
 M-class flares - These are medium-sized solar flares. They can cause brief radio blackouts that affect Earth's polar regions. Minor radiation storms can sometimes follow an M-class flare.
X-class flares - these are the biggest and are classified as major events that can trigger radio blackouts around the whole world and long-lasting radiation storms in the upper atmosphere.

Solar Flares in History

The earliest surviving record of sunspot observation dates from …
364 BC based on comments by the Chinese astronomer Gan De. From the State of Qi reportedly discovers the moon Ganymede, belonging to Jupiter, and makes the earliest known sunspot observations.
By 28 BC, Chinese astronomers were regularly recording sunspot observations in official imperial records
The first clear mention of a sunspot in Western literature was ...
17 March 807 AD by the Benedictine monk Adelmus, who observed a large sunspot which was visible for eight days; however, Adelmus incorrectly concluded he was observing a transit of Mercury
813 AD. A large sunspot was also seen at the time of Charlemagne's death in
1129 Sunspot activity was described by John of Worcester,
12th century Averroes provided a description of sunspots;however, sadly these observations were misinterpreted as planetary transits, until Galileo gave the correct explanation in 1612.
Nostradamus, Solar Flares and Earthquakes
So basically it sounds like a solar flare created either an Auroras or bolide explosions in areas that don’t normally get southern lights. And there will be an earthquake 3 days after the start of this occurrence.
August 1st 2010. Solar flare
August 3rd 2010. A 6.4 earthquake hit Papa New Guinea.
February. 15th 2011. We had a Class X solar flare. The flare hit the earth onFebruary 18th 2011.
On February 22nd 2011 the deadly 6.3-magnitude Christchurch earthquake struck
On March 9th 2011, a class X1.5 solar flare erupted;
A Coronal Mass Ejection struck our magnetic field March 10th. Bright Aurora Borealis were visible in the northern United States. This was a result of an M3 flare that occurred late on March 7th, 2011
On Friday, March 11th, 2011 On Friday, an 9.0 magnitude earthquake hit Japan, creating a tsunami.

Solar Flare facts

The sun goes through a roughly 11-year cycle of activity, from stormy to quiet and back again.
Solar storms are like a rubber band that has been twisted too far, solar magnetic fields can suddenly snap to a new shape, releasing tremendous energy as a solar flare or a coronal mass ejection (CME).

Solar flares are explosions in the sun’s atmosphere. The largest of these can be equal to billions of one-megaton nuclear bombs.
Solar magnetic energy can also blast billions of tons of plasma into space at millions of miles (kilometers) per hour as a CME. This solar activity often occurs near sunspots. (dark regions on the sun caused by concentrated magnetic fields).
large amounts of energy are released, accelerating the surrounding particles to almost the speed of light.
The temperature of the flares can soar to millions of degrees.
Solar flares are different to 'coronal mass ejections' (CMEs).
CMEs are huge bubbles of gas threaded with magnetic field lines that are ejected from the Sun over the course of several hours.
Scientist have discovered a new technique of "helioseismology" this means that scientists can now see inside the sun and follow the plasms flows.
How do the two major plasma flows work?
The first of the major plasma flows acts like a conveyor belt. deep beneath the surfaceof the sun the plasma flows from the poles to the equator. At the equator, the plasma rises and flows back to the poles, where it sinks and repeats.
The second flow is like a taffy pull. The surface layer of the sun rotates faster at the equator than it does near the poles. So as the solar magnetic field crosses the equator as it goes from pole to pole some of it it gets wrapped around the equator, over and over again. This leads to the peaks in solar storm activity. Solar fireworks in the form of flares and CME's dissipate some of the built up energy.
Source: NASA

So what can happen when one of these solar flares hits the earth

Solar flares facts -
  • They cause Environmental disturbances: (Geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, radio blackouts: xrays, cell phone, GPS, satellite interruptions.)
  • Large solar flares cause Auroras (during x class flares, auroras may be seen very far south)
  • Earthquakes can be attributed to increased solar activity.
  • Large Solar flares can cause shockwaves or bolide explosions (large fireballs in the sky these can also sound like explosions)
  • Ice can fall from the sky
  • Birds can fall dead from the sky (if there hit by a shockwave or bolide explosion) and they may effect marine life.
Okay If your anything like me you now whant to know ...
What does this all mean?
Solar Flares cause Environmental disturbances: (Geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, radio blackouts: xrays, cell phone, GPS, satellite interruptions.)
Solar Flares (scientists are now calling them Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)) cause Electro-Magnetic Pulses (EMP’s) or bursts of electromagnetic radiation from a major Solar Flare.
Basically a really large Solar Flare could practically take out the world's electricity distribution on a semi-permanent basis. It would take many years, if not decades, to repair the world's electrical system, even if replacement parts were immediately available. There would be massive damage to power generation, distribution facilities, substations and countless transformers and switching equipment everywhere. When high power transformers used in substations or on utility poles are damaged, they must be scrapped or rebuilt. If the factories that create or repair these electrical components are also without power, they will be unable to rebuild or repair electrical equipment. With an AC power outage, there will be no diesel fuel available to fill the tanks of large heavy goods vehicles used to transport and install the massive electrical components.

It takes an enormous amount of power to bring a power plant online. This power must come from another power plant. If all power plants were knocked off line, or all those in a specific region, there would be no means to start them back up again. It would take a year or two to get one operational again and additional years to power the rest. So it might be a decade for human civilisation to achieve a semblance of what it was, prior to the Solar Flare. That also means no GPS, Internet, Satellite or Mobile phones, T.V, ATM’s, Radio. Also many Fuel pumps use electronic pumping systems.
Scientists from NASA say - "If forecasters are correct, the solar cycle will peak during the years around 2013". "We need to be Preparing for a "solar Katrina," launching a new science, harnessing the talents of scientists around the globe".To find out what you need to have before this happens click here
A Sun Spot shows as a dark patch

Large Solar flares can cause shockwaves or bolide explosions

Ice can fall from the sky
An Alva family says a chunk of ice fell from the sky and landed in their backyard. The homeowner says the skies were clear blue and can't figure out how it happened. Cyndi Smith says she is still trying to figure it all out. "I don't know a space ice comet! I don't have any ideas where it came from," she said.
Monster ice meteors, called megacryometeors, drop singly from cloudless skies and can weigh a couple hundred pounds. More than 50 such events have been reported globally in the past seven years alone, according to a planetary geologist at the Center for Astrobiology in Madrid.
Birds can fall dead from the sky and marine life can be effected.
On the night of New years eve 2011, 5,000 blackbirds fell out of the sky ...
Karen Rowe, an ornithologist for the wildlife commission said, "It’s important to understand that a sick bird can't fly."
Their stomachs were empty, which rules out poison, Dr. George Badley said, and they died in midair, not on impact with the ground. Tests for poisonous gasses and other diseases have turned up negative in all the reports given to the media. Preliminary autopsies on 17 of the up to 5,000 blackbirds that fell on this town indicate they died of blunt trauma to their organs, the state's top veterinarian told NBC .
Game and Fish Commission officers said there were reports of loud noises shortly before the birds began to fall from the sky, which may have accounted for why they were flying at such an unusual hour.
An overhead bolide explosion is enough to send a shock wave into the earth, killing bird’s mid-flight or causing earthquake-like effects. Overhead explosions may have startle the birds out of the trees into the sky, and then the shock wave of another struck them mid-flight as they frantically tried to escape. Birds have much more sensitive internal organs than humans do. By the time the shock wave reached the surface, it would have likely dissipated enough so that any surface dwelling creatures (including humans) were unaffected and probably only heard it as a loud 'thunder'.

Thursday, 26 January 2012

Australian Prime Minister 'Trapped' By Aboriginal Protesters

JULIA Gillard and Tony Abbott have been bundled out of a Canberra restaurant after the building was rushed by Aboriginal protesters today.
The Prime Minister and Opposition Leader were trapped in the building for about 30 minutes as about 100 activists from the nearby Aboriginal Tent embassy banged on windows.

The leaders' were escorted out of The Lobby restaurant by body guards and into a waiting car as protesters were pushed back by a line of Australian Federal Police officers.
Mr Gillard stumbled and lost a shoe as she was rushed from the building, but was unhurt.
The Lobby is just metres away from the Tent Embassy, which was established 40 years ago tomorrow.
The incident was sparked by comments made by Mr Abbott made earlier in the day, which were interpreted as a call to disband the Tent Embassy.
"Look, I can understand why the Tent Embassy was established all those years ago. I think a lot has changed for the better since then," he said in a doorstop interview in Sydney.
''I think a lot has changed for the better since then.
''We had the historic apology just a few years ago, one of the genuine achievements of Kevin Rudd as prime minister.
''We had the proposal which is currently for national consideration to recognise indigenous people in the Constitution.
''I think the indigenous people of Australia can be very proud of the respect in which they are held by every Australian and yes, I think a lot has changed since then and I think it probably is time to move on from that.''
Protester Kalara Gilbert told The Australian Online the crowd was angered by the comments.
“Some people found out that they were at that restaurant so we thought we’d take the fight to the people,” Ms Gilbert said.
“What Tony Abbott said was disgraceful. Our people are living in awful third world conditions, they’re dying and this government just continues to turn a blind eye to it.”
Aboriginal activists from the embassy are demanding the Prime Minister sign a treaty of sovereignty granting ownership of Australian land to its indigenous peoples.

PM dragged away after being trapped by protesters

Dylan Welch
January 26, 2012 - 4:50PM
·         Read later
The Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, and Opposition Leader, Tony Abbott, had to be extracted from a restaurant near Parliament House as angry protesters banged on the glass.
Supporters of the Aboriginal Tent Embassy in Canberra picketed the Lobby restaurant over comments by Mr Abbott this morning that the tent embassy should close.
As many as 200 gathered in front of the restaurant, banging on its glass walls and yelling "shame" and "racist".
Julia Gillard is dragged away from the protest by her security officers.

The incident, about 2.30pm at the restaurant several hundred metres from Parliament, occurred while Ms Gillard and Mr Abbott were presenting the National Emergency Medals.
The pair were forced to stay inside for 30 minutes while the protest outside continued.
As many as 1000 people had gathered as part of a march to mark the 40th anniversary of the Tent Embassy.
Close call ... Julia Gillard protected by one of her security detail as she is rushed to her car.

Ms Gillard was escorted in dramatic fashion from the building by her federal police Close Personal Protection team.
Fairfax photographer Alex Ellinghausen, who took the pictures on this page, said that, contrary to the claims of Ms Gillard's office that she merely "stumbled", she was "dragged out" by her bodyguards.
"The police were pulling her out and they were clearly a bit faster than her and along the way she lost a shoe and tumbled," he said.
The Prime Minister is hurried away by her security detail.

One of the protesters, the chairman of the Northern Basin Aboriginal nations, Fred Hooper, spoke to Sky News shortly after the politicians’ dramatic exit, explaining why they caused the incident.
‘‘We were peacefully celebrating the 40th anniversary of the aboriginal tent embassy. The opposition leader on national television made a comment to tear down something that have built over 40 years, which is sacred to us,’’ he said.
‘‘So what do you expect us to do when we're 200 yards away from the person that makes that comment? Do you expect us to say, ‘yeah Tony we're gonna do that now? We're gonna rip it down?’’’
Riot police push their way through the protesters at the Lobby restaurant.

Earlier today one of the tent embassy's founders, Michael Anderson, addressed a rally at the site.
"To hell with the government and the courts in this country. You haven't got a high hope to take us on," he said.
"We will force these issues. Too many of our families have suffered for some bastard to get in the road."

Mr Sean Gordon, Darkinjung Aboriginal Land Council leader from North West NSW, said the protest had been peaceful until an announcement was made in which Mr Abbott's comments were read to the crowd.
"It was like waving a red rag at a bull. This is the 40th anniversary of the tent embassy and these blokes are 200 metres away. If Tony Abbott is a visionary then why did he fail to see what this would do to our people."
"In answer to the Opposition Leader's comments an NSW Aboriginal Council member,  Roy RC, told reporters "maybe Abbott is right and it is time for the tent embassy to go."
The Prime Minister is budnled into her car.

"And then it is time to erect a black Parliament with politicians we can choose, politicians who are going to have a say in our lives," he said.
Mr Gordon said further protests were planned for the rest of the week and that "we're going to keep the fight going. We are standing up here and we are not going away."
Mr Abbott's comments about the Tent Embassy were made during an event at the Sydney Opera House this morning in response to a question from the media about whether the Tent Embassy was still relevant.

Fenomena Ribut Geomagnetik


by Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA) on Thursday, January 26, 2012 at 11:23am



  • Matahari adalah sebuah bintang bersaiz sederhana dan mempunyai aktiviti luaran (permukaan) seperti pembentukan tompok hitam (sunspot), penyemburan tenaga melalui fenomena seperti suar matahari (flare) dan penyemburan jisim korona (Coronal Mass Ejection, CME) yang boleh menyebabkan fenomena ribut suria (solar storm). Aktiviti matahari ini mempunyai kitaran ‘senyap’ dan juga ‘aktif’ selama 11 tahun yang berulang yang dikenali sebagai kitaran suria (solar cycle). Fenomena di mana matahari mengalami aktiviti ‘aktif’ ini di kenali sebagai solar maksimum (solar max) yang dijangka akan berlaku dalam tahun 2012 hingga 2013.

  • Kesan fenomena ribut suria dan interaksinya dengan medan magnet dan lapisan ionosfera Bumi boleh menyebabkan ribut geomagnetik yang mana boleh menyebabkan gangguan kepada sistem komunikasi radio  dan radar, sistem satelit dan gangguan kepada sistem navigasi seperti kompas yang berpandukan kepada magnetik Bumi dan fenomena kenampakan aurora di kutub utara dan selatan Bumi. Ribut geomagnetik yang sangat kuat seperti yang berlaku pada tahun 1989 boleh menyebabkan arus aruhan yang menyebabkan kebakaran alat transformers di jaringan elektrik voltan tinggi di Wilayah Quebac, Kanada.

  • Satu Nota Jemaah Menteri (N618/2011) daripada MOSTI telah dibentangkan pada 3 Ogos 2011 yang telah menerangkan fenomena berkaitan, dan juga jangkaan berlakunya solar maksimum pada tahun 2012 – 2013 ini, dan kesannya kepada Bumi dan aktiviti berkaitan. Satu jawatankuasa bersama antara Agensi ANGKASA Negara dan Jabatan Meteorologi Malaysia (JMM), Jawatan Kuasa Pemantauan Solar Maksimum, juga telah diwujudkan untuk memantau dan menangani fenomena solar maksimum ini.


  • Untuk makluman, satu fenomena letusan suar matahari dan semburan CME telah dilaporkan berlaku di permukaan  Matahari  pada 23 Jan 2012 yang dikesan melalui satelit khas pemantauan Matahari, SOHO dan STEREO milik NASA dan ESA. Letusan ini telah menyebabkan fenomena ribut geomagnetik di Bumi pada 24 Januari sekitar jam 15:00 UT (jam 23:00 Waktu tempatan). Fenomena ini telah dilaporkan oleh stesen TV3 pada 24 Januari (LAMPIRAN).

  • Menurut laporan daripada National Space Weather Prediction Centre (NSWPC) dan National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) hari ini (25 Jan 2012), skala ribut Geomagnetik yang telah berlaku hanyalah pada skala G1 (bacaan paling rendah) dan bukannya G2 - G3 seperti yang dilaporkan oleh berita TV3 semalam, dan ianya tidak memberi gangguan kepada sistem infrastruktur di Bumi dan hanya telah mewujudkan fenomena aurora di kutub utara. Untuk makluman YB juga, skala G5 ialah bacaan yang paling tinggi.

  • Untuk makluman juga, fenomena seperti ribut geomagnetik ini hanya memberi kesan yang ketara kepada negara-negara yang berada di kutub atau di latitud tinggi seperti USA, Rusia, Eropah manakala negara-negara yang berada berhampiran Khatulistiwa adalah lebih selamat. Sehubungan dengan itu, Malaysia diramalkan selamat dan tidak akan terkesan dengan fenomena berkaitan.

  •  Untuk makluman, bermula bulan Januari 2012 ini, Jawatan Kuasa Pemantauan Solar Maksimum akan menyediakan laporan berhubung dengan fenomena ini secara bulanan  untuk makluman umum.

Disediakan oleh:
Jawatan Kuasa Pemantauan Solar Maksimum
25 Jan 2012