Solar Flares can create earthquakes, facts and history

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As I was writing the hub about whether or not we can predict earthquakes I found that there is a lot of very interesting information regarding Solar Flares. I then decided that Solar Flares need to have their own special hub so this is why I am writing this.
According to scientists at (NCAR) in Boulder, Colo. "The next solar activity cycle will be 30 to 50 percent stronger than the previous one, and up to a year late in arriving. ... One needs to go back over 8,000 years in order to find a time when the sun was, on average, as active as it is at present!" - They were speaking about the solar activity we are starting to experience at this time.
NASA admitted on their website "spacequakes can cause Northern lights and magnitude 5 or 6 earthquake". To find out more on Earthquakes please click here


When all three graphs below hit 9, is when the sun has become extremely violent and a world-wide power blackout may be emanate.
March 19th 2011, Prominence Eroption up close
Source: NASA

The different strength Solar Flares explained

Scientists classify solar flares according to their brightness in the x-ray wavelengths. There are three categories of solar flares -
C-class flares - These are small solar flares with few noticeable consequences here on Earth.
 M-class flares - These are medium-sized solar flares. They can cause brief radio blackouts that affect Earth's polar regions. Minor radiation storms can sometimes follow an M-class flare.
X-class flares - these are the biggest and are classified as major events that can trigger radio blackouts around the whole world and long-lasting radiation storms in the upper atmosphere.

Solar Flares in History

The earliest surviving record of sunspot observation dates from …
364 BC based on comments by the Chinese astronomer Gan De. From the State of Qi reportedly discovers the moon Ganymede, belonging to Jupiter, and makes the earliest known sunspot observations.
By 28 BC, Chinese astronomers were regularly recording sunspot observations in official imperial records
The first clear mention of a sunspot in Western literature was ...
17 March 807 AD by the Benedictine monk Adelmus, who observed a large sunspot which was visible for eight days; however, Adelmus incorrectly concluded he was observing a transit of Mercury
813 AD. A large sunspot was also seen at the time of Charlemagne's death in
1129 Sunspot activity was described by John of Worcester,
12th century Averroes provided a description of sunspots;however, sadly these observations were misinterpreted as planetary transits, until Galileo gave the correct explanation in 1612.
Nostradamus, Solar Flares and Earthquakes
So basically it sounds like a solar flare created either an Auroras or bolide explosions in areas that don’t normally get southern lights. And there will be an earthquake 3 days after the start of this occurrence.
August 1st 2010. Solar flare
August 3rd 2010. A 6.4 earthquake hit Papa New Guinea.
February. 15th 2011. We had a Class X solar flare. The flare hit the earth onFebruary 18th 2011.
On February 22nd 2011 the deadly 6.3-magnitude Christchurch earthquake struck
On March 9th 2011, a class X1.5 solar flare erupted;
A Coronal Mass Ejection struck our magnetic field March 10th. Bright Aurora Borealis were visible in the northern United States. This was a result of an M3 flare that occurred late on March 7th, 2011
On Friday, March 11th, 2011 On Friday, an 9.0 magnitude earthquake hit Japan, creating a tsunami.

Solar Flare facts

The sun goes through a roughly 11-year cycle of activity, from stormy to quiet and back again.
Solar storms are like a rubber band that has been twisted too far, solar magnetic fields can suddenly snap to a new shape, releasing tremendous energy as a solar flare or a coronal mass ejection (CME).

Solar flares are explosions in the sun’s atmosphere. The largest of these can be equal to billions of one-megaton nuclear bombs.
Solar magnetic energy can also blast billions of tons of plasma into space at millions of miles (kilometers) per hour as a CME. This solar activity often occurs near sunspots. (dark regions on the sun caused by concentrated magnetic fields).
large amounts of energy are released, accelerating the surrounding particles to almost the speed of light.
The temperature of the flares can soar to millions of degrees.
Solar flares are different to 'coronal mass ejections' (CMEs).
CMEs are huge bubbles of gas threaded with magnetic field lines that are ejected from the Sun over the course of several hours.
Scientist have discovered a new technique of "helioseismology" this means that scientists can now see inside the sun and follow the plasms flows.
How do the two major plasma flows work?
The first of the major plasma flows acts like a conveyor belt. deep beneath the surfaceof the sun the plasma flows from the poles to the equator. At the equator, the plasma rises and flows back to the poles, where it sinks and repeats.
The second flow is like a taffy pull. The surface layer of the sun rotates faster at the equator than it does near the poles. So as the solar magnetic field crosses the equator as it goes from pole to pole some of it it gets wrapped around the equator, over and over again. This leads to the peaks in solar storm activity. Solar fireworks in the form of flares and CME's dissipate some of the built up energy.
Source: NASA

So what can happen when one of these solar flares hits the earth

Solar flares facts -
  • They cause Environmental disturbances: (Geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, radio blackouts: xrays, cell phone, GPS, satellite interruptions.)
  • Large solar flares cause Auroras (during x class flares, auroras may be seen very far south)
  • Earthquakes can be attributed to increased solar activity.
  • Large Solar flares can cause shockwaves or bolide explosions (large fireballs in the sky these can also sound like explosions)
  • Ice can fall from the sky
  • Birds can fall dead from the sky (if there hit by a shockwave or bolide explosion) and they may effect marine life.
Okay If your anything like me you now whant to know ...
What does this all mean?
Solar Flares cause Environmental disturbances: (Geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, radio blackouts: xrays, cell phone, GPS, satellite interruptions.)
Solar Flares (scientists are now calling them Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)) cause Electro-Magnetic Pulses (EMP’s) or bursts of electromagnetic radiation from a major Solar Flare.
Basically a really large Solar Flare could practically take out the world's electricity distribution on a semi-permanent basis. It would take many years, if not decades, to repair the world's electrical system, even if replacement parts were immediately available. There would be massive damage to power generation, distribution facilities, substations and countless transformers and switching equipment everywhere. When high power transformers used in substations or on utility poles are damaged, they must be scrapped or rebuilt. If the factories that create or repair these electrical components are also without power, they will be unable to rebuild or repair electrical equipment. With an AC power outage, there will be no diesel fuel available to fill the tanks of large heavy goods vehicles used to transport and install the massive electrical components.

It takes an enormous amount of power to bring a power plant online. This power must come from another power plant. If all power plants were knocked off line, or all those in a specific region, there would be no means to start them back up again. It would take a year or two to get one operational again and additional years to power the rest. So it might be a decade for human civilisation to achieve a semblance of what it was, prior to the Solar Flare. That also means no GPS, Internet, Satellite or Mobile phones, T.V, ATM’s, Radio. Also many Fuel pumps use electronic pumping systems.
Scientists from NASA say - "If forecasters are correct, the solar cycle will peak during the years around 2013". "We need to be Preparing for a "solar Katrina," launching a new science, harnessing the talents of scientists around the globe".To find out what you need to have before this happens click here
A Sun Spot shows as a dark patch

Large Solar flares can cause shockwaves or bolide explosions

Ice can fall from the sky
An Alva family says a chunk of ice fell from the sky and landed in their backyard. The homeowner says the skies were clear blue and can't figure out how it happened. Cyndi Smith says she is still trying to figure it all out. "I don't know a space ice comet! I don't have any ideas where it came from," she said.
Monster ice meteors, called megacryometeors, drop singly from cloudless skies and can weigh a couple hundred pounds. More than 50 such events have been reported globally in the past seven years alone, according to a planetary geologist at the Center for Astrobiology in Madrid.
Birds can fall dead from the sky and marine life can be effected.
On the night of New years eve 2011, 5,000 blackbirds fell out of the sky ...
Karen Rowe, an ornithologist for the wildlife commission said, "It’s important to understand that a sick bird can't fly."
Their stomachs were empty, which rules out poison, Dr. George Badley said, and they died in midair, not on impact with the ground. Tests for poisonous gasses and other diseases have turned up negative in all the reports given to the media. Preliminary autopsies on 17 of the up to 5,000 blackbirds that fell on this town indicate they died of blunt trauma to their organs, the state's top veterinarian told NBC .
Game and Fish Commission officers said there were reports of loud noises shortly before the birds began to fall from the sky, which may have accounted for why they were flying at such an unusual hour.
An overhead bolide explosion is enough to send a shock wave into the earth, killing bird’s mid-flight or causing earthquake-like effects. Overhead explosions may have startle the birds out of the trees into the sky, and then the shock wave of another struck them mid-flight as they frantically tried to escape. Birds have much more sensitive internal organs than humans do. By the time the shock wave reached the surface, it would have likely dissipated enough so that any surface dwelling creatures (including humans) were unaffected and probably only heard it as a loud 'thunder'.

Fenomena Ribut Geomagnetik


by Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA) on Thursday, January 26, 2012 at 11:23am



  • Matahari adalah sebuah bintang bersaiz sederhana dan mempunyai aktiviti luaran (permukaan) seperti pembentukan tompok hitam (sunspot), penyemburan tenaga melalui fenomena seperti suar matahari (flare) dan penyemburan jisim korona (Coronal Mass Ejection, CME) yang boleh menyebabkan fenomena ribut suria (solar storm). Aktiviti matahari ini mempunyai kitaran ‘senyap’ dan juga ‘aktif’ selama 11 tahun yang berulang yang dikenali sebagai kitaran suria (solar cycle). Fenomena di mana matahari mengalami aktiviti ‘aktif’ ini di kenali sebagai solar maksimum (solar max) yang dijangka akan berlaku dalam tahun 2012 hingga 2013.

  • Kesan fenomena ribut suria dan interaksinya dengan medan magnet dan lapisan ionosfera Bumi boleh menyebabkan ribut geomagnetik yang mana boleh menyebabkan gangguan kepada sistem komunikasi radio  dan radar, sistem satelit dan gangguan kepada sistem navigasi seperti kompas yang berpandukan kepada magnetik Bumi dan fenomena kenampakan aurora di kutub utara dan selatan Bumi. Ribut geomagnetik yang sangat kuat seperti yang berlaku pada tahun 1989 boleh menyebabkan arus aruhan yang menyebabkan kebakaran alat transformers di jaringan elektrik voltan tinggi di Wilayah Quebac, Kanada.

  • Satu Nota Jemaah Menteri (N618/2011) daripada MOSTI telah dibentangkan pada 3 Ogos 2011 yang telah menerangkan fenomena berkaitan, dan juga jangkaan berlakunya solar maksimum pada tahun 2012 – 2013 ini, dan kesannya kepada Bumi dan aktiviti berkaitan. Satu jawatankuasa bersama antara Agensi ANGKASA Negara dan Jabatan Meteorologi Malaysia (JMM), Jawatan Kuasa Pemantauan Solar Maksimum, juga telah diwujudkan untuk memantau dan menangani fenomena solar maksimum ini.


  • Untuk makluman, satu fenomena letusan suar matahari dan semburan CME telah dilaporkan berlaku di permukaan  Matahari  pada 23 Jan 2012 yang dikesan melalui satelit khas pemantauan Matahari, SOHO dan STEREO milik NASA dan ESA. Letusan ini telah menyebabkan fenomena ribut geomagnetik di Bumi pada 24 Januari sekitar jam 15:00 UT (jam 23:00 Waktu tempatan). Fenomena ini telah dilaporkan oleh stesen TV3 pada 24 Januari (LAMPIRAN).

  • Menurut laporan daripada National Space Weather Prediction Centre (NSWPC) dan National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) hari ini (25 Jan 2012), skala ribut Geomagnetik yang telah berlaku hanyalah pada skala G1 (bacaan paling rendah) dan bukannya G2 - G3 seperti yang dilaporkan oleh berita TV3 semalam, dan ianya tidak memberi gangguan kepada sistem infrastruktur di Bumi dan hanya telah mewujudkan fenomena aurora di kutub utara. Untuk makluman YB juga, skala G5 ialah bacaan yang paling tinggi.

  • Untuk makluman juga, fenomena seperti ribut geomagnetik ini hanya memberi kesan yang ketara kepada negara-negara yang berada di kutub atau di latitud tinggi seperti USA, Rusia, Eropah manakala negara-negara yang berada berhampiran Khatulistiwa adalah lebih selamat. Sehubungan dengan itu, Malaysia diramalkan selamat dan tidak akan terkesan dengan fenomena berkaitan.

  •  Untuk makluman, bermula bulan Januari 2012 ini, Jawatan Kuasa Pemantauan Solar Maksimum akan menyediakan laporan berhubung dengan fenomena ini secara bulanan  untuk makluman umum.

Disediakan oleh:
Jawatan Kuasa Pemantauan Solar Maksimum
25 Jan 2012

Strongest Solar Storm Since 2005 Hitting Earth

WASHINGTON - Associated Press

This January 19, 2012 image provided by NASA shows an M3.2 solar flare captured by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). An earth-directed coronal mass ejection was associated with the solar flare. AFP photo
This January 19, 2012 image provided by NASA shows an M3.2 solar flare captured by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). An earth-directed coronal mass ejection was associated with the solar flare. AFP photo
The sun is bombarding Earth with radiation from the biggest solar storm in more than six years with more to come from the fast-moving eruption.

The solar flare occurred at about 0400 GMT Sunday and will hit Earth with three different effects at three different times. The biggest issue is radiation, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Space Weather Prediction Center in Colorado.

The radiation is mostly a concern for satellite disruptions and astronauts in space. It can cause communication problems for polar-traveling airplanes, said space weather center physicist Doug Biesecker.

Radiation from Sunday's flare arrived at Earth an hour later and will likely continue through Wednesday. Levels are considered strong but other storms have been more severe. There are two higher levels of radiation on NOAA's storm scale "severe and extreme" Biesecker said. Still, this storm is the strongest for radiation since May 2005.

The radiation, in the form of protons, came flying out of the sun at 150 million kilometers per hour. "The whole volume of space between here and Jupiter is just filled with protons and you just don't get rid of them like that," Biesecker said. That's why the effects will stick around for a couple days.

NASA's flight surgeons and solar experts examined the solar flare's expected effects and decided that the six astronauts on the International Space Station do not have to do anything to protect themselves from the radiation, spokesman Rob Navias said.

AP photo
A solar eruption is followed by a one-two-three punch, said Antti Pulkkinen, a physicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland and Catholic University.

First comes electromagnetic radiation, followed by radiation in the form of protons.

Then, finally the coronal mass ejection - that's the plasma from the sun itself - hits. Usually that travels at about 1,6 or 3.2 million kilometers per hour, but this storm is particularly speedy and is shooting out at 6 million kilometers per hour, Biesecker said.

It's the plasma that causes much of the noticeable problems on Earth, such as electrical grid outages. In 1989, a solar storm caused a massive blackout in Quebec. It can also pull the northern lights farther south.

But this coronal mass ejection seems likely to be only moderate, with a chance for becoming strong, Biesecker said. The worst of the storm is likely to go north of Earth.

And unlike last October, when a freak solar storm caused auroras to be seen as far south as could see an aurora but not until Tuesday evening, he said.

For the past several years the sun had been quiet, almost too quiet. Part of that was the normal calm part of the sun's 11-year cycle of activity. Last year, scientists started to speculate that the sun was going into an unusually quiet cycle that seems to happen maybe once a century or so.

Now that super-quiet cycle does not seem as likely, Biesecker said.

Scientists watching the sun with a new NASA satellite launched in 2010 - during the sun's quiet period - are excited.

"We haven't had anything like this for a number of years," Pulkkinen said. "It's kind of special."

Flights rerouted as massive solar storm slams Earth
WASHINGTON — Solar radiation from a massive sun storm -- the largest in nearly a decade -- collided with the Earth's atmosphere, prompting an airline to reroute flights and skywatchers to seek out spectacular light displays.
US carrier Delta Air Lines said it had adjusted flight routes for transpolar journeys between Asia and the United States to avoid problems caused by the radiation storm, a spokesman said.
NASA confirmed the coronal mass ejection (CME) began colliding with Earth's magnetic field around 10:00 AM (1500 GMT) Tuesday, adding that the storm was now being considered the largest since October 2003.
Radiation storms are not harmful to humans, on Earth at least, according to the US space agency. They can, however, affect satellite operations and short wave radio.
The storm's radiation, likely to continue bombarding Earth's atmosphere through Wednesday, and its possible disruption to satellite communications in the polar regions prompted the flight rerouting, airline officials said.
Atlanta-based Delta, the world's second largest airline, said "a handful" of routes had their journey adjusted "based on potential impact" of the solar storm on communications equipment, spokesman Anthony Black told AFP.
Routes from Hong Kong, Shanghai and Seoul took a more southerly route after the solar flare erupted on Sunday.
The airline said it would continue to monitor solar activity before return flights to their normal routes.
Due to the unusual intensity of the photons raining on Earth, the spectacular aurora borealis -- the stunning "Northern Lights" display -- which is often seen closer to the Arctic pole at this time of year, has been seen as far south as Scotland and northern England, and at lower latitudes in the United States.
The event started late Sunday with a moderate-sized solar flare that erupted right near the center of the Sun, said Doug Biesecker, a physicist with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Space Weather Prediction Center.
"The flare itself was nothing spectacular, but it sent off a very fast coronal mass ejection traveling four million miles per hour (6.4 million kilometers per hour)," he told AFP.
Space weather watchers said the best aurora sightings are normally around midnight local time.
Rob Stammes, who runs the Lofoten Polar Light Centre in Lofoten, Norway said the CME's arrival Tuesday had produced a surge in ground currents outside his laboratory.
"This could be a happy day for many aurora watchers," he told aurora tracker


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