March 10, 2011: Singapore is replacing its twelve British Rapier anti-aircraft missile systems with Israeli Spyder systems. Spyder is a mobile, short range system using, as many such systems do these days, air-to-air missiles.
Spyder launchers (truck mounted, with four box like launch cells each) can carry either the Python 5 heat seeking missile (3.2 meters/ten feet long, 105 kg/231 pounds, with a range of 15 kilometers) or the Derby radar guided missile (3.6 meter/11.2 feet long, 121.4 kg/267 pounds, with a range of 65 kilometers). The Derby is actually a larger Python, with more fuel and a different guidance system.
Each Spyder system has four missile launcher trucks, a radar truck and a missile re-supply truck. Each system costs about $11 million.
The Spyder radar system has a maximum range of 100 kilometers. The missiles can hit targets as high as 9,000 meters (28,000 feet) and as low as 20 meters (63 feet). Deliveries will begin this year.
The older Rapier has a range of only 6.8 kilometers and entered service in the 1960s.
SPYDER is a quick reaction medium range missile system that can engage aircraft, helicopters, unmanned air vehicles, drones and precision-guided munitions. It provides air defence for fixed assets and for point and area mobile forces in combat areas. Technological research that was used to develop the SPYDER was later used to develop the Iron Dome.
The SPYDER-SR system has 360° engagement ability and missiles can be launched from the full-readiness state in less than five seconds after target confirmation. The kill range is up to 20 miles and at altitudes from a minimum of 50 ft to a maximum of 120,000 ft. The system can perform multi-target simultaneous engagement and single, multiple and ripple firing, by day and night, in all weathers.
Rafael Armament Development Authority, the MBT Missile Division and Elta Radar Division of Israel Aircraft Industries have announced the SPYDER surface-to-air PYthon 5 and DERby Air Defence Missile System. Rafael is the prime contractor and IAI the major subcontractor for the SPYDER program.
Three SPYDER-SR (short-range) systems have been sold to an undisclosed country. The system was displayed for the first time at the Paris Air Show 2005 in Le Bourget. Company firing tests of the system are currently underway.
In June 2006, SPYDER was selected by the Indian Army. The procurement was finally approved by the approved by the Indian Defence Acquisitions Council in July 2008. A contract worth $1bn for 18 SPYDER systems was awarded to Rafael in September 2008. To meet the contractual terms the systems must be delivered between early 2011 and August 2012.
SPYDER is a low-level quick-reaction surface-to-air missile system capable of engaging aircraft, helicopters, unmanned air vehicles, drones and precision-guided munitions. It provides air defence for fixed assets and for point and area defence for mobile forces in combat areas.
The SPYDER-SR system has 360° engagement capability and the missiles can be launched from the full-readiness state in less than five seconds from target confirmation. The kill range is from less than 1km to more than 15km and at altitudes from a minimum of 20m to a maximum of 9,000m. The system is capable of multi-target simultaneous engagement and also single, multiple and ripple firing, by day and night and in all weathers.
Rafael is developing a medium-range version, SPYDER-MR, which has a range over 35km at altitudes from 20m to 16km. SPYDER-MR carries eight missiles while SPYDER-SR has four. SPYDER-MR also has a new IAI/Elta MF-STAR surveillance radar.
SPYDER system components
The main components of the SPYDER system are the truck-mounted command and control unit, the missile firing unit with Python 5 and Derby missiles, a field service vehicle and missile supply vehicle.
The vehicles are air-conditioned and also provide protection against biological and chemical warfare (BCW). The system is based on a modular design and system maintenance in the field is through very quick module replacement.
Modes of operation - Python 5 and Derby missile launcher
The system can launch missiles in two modes of operation: lock on before launch (LOBL) and lock on after launch (LOAL). The slant launching method, unlike vertical launch, allows LOBL so the missile's on-board seeker is locked on to the target before launch. The LOBL mode allows the Squadron Commander to confirm the missile is locked on to the designated target prior to launch, gives high kill probability against short-range high-manoeuvring targets and enables the engagement of designated targets by add-on optical sensors.
"SPYDER provides air defence for fixed assets and for point and area defence for mobile forces in combat areas."
A typical SPYDER squadron consists of one mobile command and control unit (CCU) and four mobile firing units (MFU).
The CCU and MFUs each have their own built-in power supplies. The system features an automated computer, assisting the operators in the successful completion of hostile target interceptions in intense battlefield environments. The mobile CCU is equipped with a surveillance radar and two operator stations. There is a radio datalink between the CCU and the four MFUs.
The CCU combines data from the local surveillance radar and from upper tier command and control centres up to 100km away. There is also provision for receiving air situation pictures from other datalinks.
The air situation picture (ASP) is displayed at the operator's workstation in the command centre. When the operator decides to launch, an automatic procedure is initiated. The CCU assigns the target to the appropriate launch unit.
If the target is within acquisition range the missile is launched in LOBL mode. If the target is beyond seeker acquisition range the missile is launched in LOAL mode. The seeker searches for the target and switches to homing phase when the target is acquired.
Both the Derby and the Python 5 missiles can operate in LOBL and LOAL modes. The target is destroyed by the warhead blasting on impact or by proximity fuse.
Truck-mounted command and control unit
The command and control unit is housed in a truck-mounted shelter with a mounted radar, information friend or foe (IFF) interrogator and communication equipment. The VHF/UHF interference-free communication system is for internal squadron communication and to upper tier command.
Elta EL/M 2106 ATAR 3D surveillance radar
The Elta EL/M 2106 ATAR 3D surveillance radar can simultaneously track up to 60 targets. The radar has 360° operation and all-weather day and night capability. The radar includes advanced electronic counter countermeasures (ECCM) for operation in dense hostile electronic warfare environments.
"A typical SPYDER squadron consists of one mobile command and control unit (CCU) and four mobile firing units (MFU)."
Truck-mounted missile launcher
SPYDER uses a truck-mounted missile firing unit which is equipped with a communications system and fitted with a 360° rotatable, electro-mechanically operated, turret-based launch unit. The SPYDER-SR launch unit carries any combination of four Python 5 or Derby missiles.
Python 5 missile
The Python 5 missile is Rafael's new very high agility dogfight air-to-air missile. Python 5 is a development of the Python 4 with a dual-band focal plane array and imaging infrared (IIR) seeker which gives a very wide field of view.
Python 5 retains the same airframe - with pitch and yaw control, delta-shaped canards and two roll control swept fins and the same rocket motor, warhead and fuse - as the Python 4 missile. The wide field of view allows LOAL at an angle of more than 100° off boresight. The dual-band seeker gives increased detection range, improved target discrimination against background clutter and a lower false target acquisition rate.
In LOAL mode, the target data is transferred from the command and control unit via the launcher to the missile. The missile's guidance and control systems are active for a three times longer period than for the earlier Python, enabling the missile to counter targets making evasive manoeuvres. The high explosive fragmentation warhead is fitted with an active laser proximity fuse.
The Derby missile is a medium-range, active radar-guided missile originally developed for the air-to-air role. The air defence missile has all-weather and beyond visual range capability.
Derby has a similar body design to the Python missile. An active RF radar / infrared seeker, developed by IAI, is installed in the nose of the missile. The missile incorporates an advanced programmable ECCM system. Derby operates in LOBL mode for short-range target engagement and LOAL mode for medium-range engagements.
Expand Image The SPYDER-SR mobile firing unit. The launcher can carry any combination of four Python 5 or Derby missiles.
Expand Image SPYDER is a low-level quick reaction surface-to-air missile system capable of engaging aircraft, helicopters, unmanned air vehicles, drones and precision-guided munitions.
Expand Image The SPYDER command and control shelter. It can receive data from upper tier command and control from a distance of up to 100km.
Expand Image The SPYDER-SR command and control unit with the mast-mounted Elta EL/M 2106 ATAR 3-D surveillance radar, which can simultaneously track up to 60 targets.
Expand Image SPYDER air defence deployment. A typical SPYDER squadron consists of one mobile command and control unit and four mobile firing units.
Expand Image The Derby medium-range, active radar-guided missile, seen here on a HMMWV launch vehicle.
Expand Image The main components of the SPYDER-SR air defence system – one command and control unit (CCU), four mobile firing units (MFU), 16 Python 5 and Derby missiles and a missile supply vehicle.